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Management/prognosis
As the disease is a progressive condition, the long-
term prognosis is poor. A mean survival time of about
18 months has been reported (6). However some dogs survive more than 4 years. Treatment in dogs with IPF is essentially symptomatic and supportive. In animals with concomitant arterial pulmonary hypertension, treatment with sildenafil is indicated. Oral glucocorticoid drugs are often used but have no proven benefit, while subjecting the dog to potentially detrimental side-effects. In dogs with chronic cough associated with tracheal collapse and/or chronic bronchitis, treatment with inhaled steroid therapy is helpful. Antitussives can be used if cough is irritating. Bronchodilators, such as theophylline may be used to promote bronchodilation, enhance mucociliary clearance, and increase the contractility of the diaphragm muscle.
1. Heikkila HP, Lappalainen AK, Day MJ, Clercx C, Rajamaki MM. Clinical, bronchoscopic, histopathologic, diagnostic imaging, and arterial oxygenation findings in West Highland White Terriers with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. J
Vet Intern Med [Internet]. 2011/03/04. 2011;25(3):433–9. Available from: http:// onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1939-1676.2011.0694.x/abstract?system Message=Wiley+Online+Library+will+be+disrupted+on+15+September+from+1 0%3A00-12%3A00+BST+%2805%3A00-07%3A00+EDT%29+for+essential+ma- intenance
2. Heikkilä-Laurila HP, Rajamäki MM. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in West Highland white terriers. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract [Internet]. 2014 Jan [cited 2017 May 17];44(1):129–42. Available from: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/ retrieve/pii/S0195561613001769
3. Corcoran BM, Cobb M, Martin MW, Dukes-McEwan J, French A, Fuentes VL, et al. Chronic pulmonary disease in West Highland white terriers. Vet Rec. 1999/07/03. 1999;144(22):611–6.
4. Sgalla G, Biffi A, Richeldi L. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: Diagnosis, epidemiology and natural history. Respirology [Internet]. 2016 Apr [cited 2017 May 17];21(3):427–37. Available from: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/resp.12683
5. Heikkila-Laurila HP, Rajamaki MM. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in
west highland white terriers. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pr [Internet]. 2013/11/26. 2014;44(1):129–42. Available from: http://ac.els-cdn.com/ S0195561613001769/1-s2.0-S0195561613001769-main.pdf?_tid=04b06432- 5e62-11e3-ad87-00000aacb361&acdnat=1386326263_4abb6713b1bed00320 8a78d9018c6003
6. Lilja-Maula LI, Laurila HP, Syrja P, Lappalainen AK, Krafft E, Clercx C,
et al. Long-term outcome and use of 6-minute walk test in West Highland White Terriers with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. J Vet Intern Med [Internet]. 2014/01/15. 2014;28(2):379–85. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/ store/10.1111/jvim.12281/asset/jvim12281.
pdf?v=1&t=hwaqq2yf&s=526af224719d27389f8869d3855a4d289b2238b7
7. Johnson VS, Corcoran BM, Wotton PR, Schwarz T, Sullivan M. Thoracic high-resolution computed tomographic findings in dogs with canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. J Small Anim Pr. 2005/08/27. 2005;46(8):381–8.
8. Roels E, Couvreur T, Farnir F, Clercx C, Verschakelen J, Bolen G. COMPARISON BETWEEN SEDATION AND GENERAL ANESTHESIA FOR HIGH RESOLUTION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERIZATION OF CANINE IDIOPATHIC PULMONARY FIBROSIS IN WEST HIGHLAND WHITE TERRIERS. Vet Radiol Ultrasound [Internet]. 2017 May [cited 2017 May 23];58(3):284–94. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28229501
9. Syrja P, Heikkila HP, Lilja-Maula L, Krafft E, Clercx C, Day MJ, et al. The histopathology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in West Highland white terriers shares features of both non-specific interstitial pneumonia and usual interstitial pneumonia in man. J Comp Pathol [Internet]. 2013/05/15. 2013;149(2–3):303– 13. Available from: http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021997513000571/1-s2.0- S0021997513000571-main.pdf?_tid=ffb0e158-cc86-11e3-82ff-00000aab0f02&a cdnat=1398436773_3bf0f0dec105bfccd7de5dccffa04864
An Urban Experience
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