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An Urban Experience
L. Urdes1
1University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest, Basic Sciences in Animal Husbandry and Food Industry, Bucharest, Romania
Laura D. Urdes DVM PhD PgDip CertAqV
Assistant Prof., Basic Sciences in Animal Husbandry and Food Industry Faculty of Engineering & Administration of Animal Products, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest, Romania
A general understanding of the term “welfare” is that it refers to the state of an individual’s body and mind, in relation to its environment. Although still controversial, due to the many con icting aspects, welfare of animals is commonplace today, in most parts of the world. Mankind has made huge progress towards understanding animal welfare: from seeing animals as non-humans lacking consciousness, used as objects, with little concern
for their welfare, we have arrived now to the point
where there is increasing concern for, and interest in understanding welfare of all non-human animal species, including  sh and non-vertebrates. The  rst known organisation devoted to animal welfare, The Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, formed in 1824, in London, aiming at educating people about animals. Forty years later, The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) was established, followed
by a number of states and territories within the United States issuing laws against cruelty to animals. Charles Darwin’s Origin of Species (1859) and Descent of Man (1871), which initially stirred great controversy, as it was raising the status of animals by presenting evolutionary links between humans and other animal species, had narrowed the gap between people and other animals,
so that the new concept was accepted in the late 1800s by most educated people. By the beginning of 1970s, people became aware of existing relationships between living things and their environment. The idea that
humans depend on the nature, and that their health and quality of life rely heavily on the quality of environmental components had hit forcefully in the late 1960s, bringing the science of ecology to the light and making people aware of the fact that humans do not rule over nature, but rather are part of it. As Laurence Pringle mentions in his book, The Animal Rights Controversy (1989) 1, the
concept of ecology meant to most of the public avoiding mismanaging of the environment by reducing pollution, protecting wildlife habitats and saving endangered species. This was also the time that the animal rights movement emerged, demanding animals’ freedom from “human oppression” and consideration for non-human animals. As expected, this movement brought about a revolutionary change of the ways humans used to feel about, and dealt with animals, but this was also the starting point of a continuing controversy on what non- human animals, and to what extent animal welfare should be considered. While advocating for “equality” and “wellbeing” of animals, Peter Singer, in his book, Animal Liberation (1978) 2 reasons that it all comes down to the capacity of suffering and enjoying life. But since suffering and pain are “mental events” perceived at individual level, one cannot tell what these events are to others. In their majority, most mammals and birds would express pain and other suffering feelings by screaming, crying, writhing etc., while they can also be seen playing and taking pleasure in various aspects of their life. This behavior
has been proved as with scienti c basis in that they have nervous systems responding to stimuli in ways similar to those of humans. Thus, there is good reason to assume that many animal species have the capacity to suffer or experience pleasure and hence, their welfare should be considered. However, if we follow only the two conditions highlighted above, based on proves and links for feelings expression in animals (i.e. behavior and anatomy/ physiology of CNS), it may drive us on a wrong path. Relying on the thinking that species which do not seem to show feelings, as well as those of which the CNS structure has not been proved to relate to the nervous system peculiarities of phylogenetically evolved species, would ensure exclusion of all animal Classes or groups placed in the phylogeny of species underneath Birds, including  sh, crustaceans and mollusks, that may prove wrong. If we take octopus, a mollusk (invertebrate) as
an example, which has a very complex nervous system, being capable to show emotions and cleverness beyond expectations, we will see that it does not conform to the description of above. Fish and crustaceans are today being considered eligible for welfare considerations, although certainly, neither those species conform to the description described previously. This is where indicators of stress, indirect monitors of suffering and happiness of most animal species, come into discussion.
Poor welfare conditions can be assessed by accounting for the biology of the  sh and how far the individual
has deviated from the normal conditions. Generally, water quality parameters, management procedures,
the design of tanks and handling procedures of  sh - on one hand, and  sh density, feeding and individual factors such as genetics and disease resistance - on

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