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the other hand, are most commonly used indicators
of  sh welfare. Generally, signs of homeostasis disruption expressed as morphological and swimming abnormalities, outbreak of (parasitic) diseases, loss of condition, etc., are generally suggestive of poor  sh welfare. Hematological, biochemical and non-speci c immune parameters have also been assessed to identify poor welfare of  sh through starving 3. Blood hematocrit and hemoglobin, plasmatic cholesterol, cortisol, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, glucose, plasma total protein concentrations and plasma lysozyme concentrations have been studied to  nd correlations between these conditions in  sh and poor welfare. However, the results showed adaptation of the metabolic pro le of starved  sh which is not suggestive of alarm-stress response. The most common stress indicator, the glucocorticoid hormone cortisol, has been proved to reach increased levels in stressed animals, leading, assumingly, to stimulation of protein catabolism, lipolysis and gluconeogenesis. Although viewed as an important welfare impairment indicator in  sh, cortisol has little value if  sh welfare is regarded from behavioral perspective and on single time point measurements,
as it is considered rather a natural, adaptive response
to environmental conditions and husbandry practices. Cortisol releases cannot be predictable, requiring a number of variables to be accounted for, such as
diurnal and seasonal variations, as well as genetic and environmental factors. Fish studies indicate as areas of clari cation for the use of cortisol as  sh welfare indicator, separation of chronic stress from acclimatization and identi cation of the relation between feelings, cortisol and behavior of  sh 4,5.
Scienti c studies to assess  sh welfare are continually evolving. The challenge includes the great diversity of  sh species and production systems, while relevant scienti c data in this  eld are still missing. In the European Union, the Council Directive 98/58/EC lays down minimum standards of protection for animal species bred or
kept for farming purposes, including  sh. In 2005, the Council of Europe adopted a recommendation on the welfare of farmed  sh. Three years later, the OIE adopted guiding principles for  sh welfare. The EFSA Panel on animal health and welfare (AHAW) adopted in 2009
an overall approach regarding  sh welfare, including welfare aspects of stunning and killing methods for seven species of farmed  sh.
All aspects relevant to  sh welfare will be systematically discussed during the presentation.
References
1. Pringle L (1989) The Animal Rights Controversy.Harcout Brace Jovanovich Publishers, NY, USA
2. Singer P (1975) Animal Liberation: A New Ethics in Our Treatment of Animals, Random House, NY, USA
3. Kim JH, Jeong HM, Jun JC, Kim TI (2014) Changes in Hematological, Biochemical and Non-speci c Immune Parameters of Olive Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, Following Starvation. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci. 2014 Sep; 27(9): 1360–1367. doi: 10.5713/ajas.2014.14110
4. Ellis T, Yildiz HY, López-Olmeda J, Spedicato MT, Tort L, Øverli Ø, Martins CI (2012) Cortisol and  n sh welfare. Fish Physiol Biochem. 2012 Feb;38(1):163-88. doi: 10.1007/s10695-011-9568-y. Epub 2011 Nov 24
5. Gräns A, Niklasson L, Sandblom E, Sundell K, Algers B, Berg C, Lundh T, Axelsson M, Sundh H, Kiessling A (2016) Stunning Fish with CO2 or Electricity: Contradictory results on behavioral and physiological stress responses. Cambridge University Press Animal. 2016 Feb; 10(2): 294–301. Published online 2015 May 11. doi: 10.1017/S1751731115000750
An Urban Experience
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