P. 158

An Urban Experience
L. Urdes1, C. Walster2, D. Palic3
1University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest, Basic Sciences in Animal Husbandry and Food Industry, Bucharest, Romania 2Island Veterinary Associates Ltd, Management, Stafford, United Kingdom
3Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Fish Diseases and Fisheries Biology, Munchen, Germany
Laura D. Urdes1*, Chris Walster2, Dusan Palic3
1Assistant Professor, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest, Romania*
2 Clinical Director, Island Veterinary Associates Ltd, Stafford, U.K.
3 Professor, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ludwig- Maximilians-Universität München, Germany
The International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) de nes pain as an “unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage” 1.
The word “pain” was initially used to describe a human emotional negative experience. It is acknowledged that the experience of pain has a physiological basis. In humans, pain is controlled by four nervous structures: hippocampus, amygdala, cerebral frontal lobes and neocortex 2. Rose (2002) 1 introduced the idea of
 sh insentience based on the absence of neocortex
- the neuroanatomical structure which is associated
with conscious awareness in humans, thus arguing against the concept of  sh feeling pain. Additionally,
the simplicity and small size of the  sh brain has led many to doubt that  sh may have the entire cognitive set required to experience pain and stress in a human sense 3: nociceptors, nociceptive processing brain components, nerve bundles, and cognitive capacity to feel pain 4. As Wadiwel (2016) argues in his commentary on Key on Fish Pain 5, explaining consciousness is considered the most dif cult problem of neuroscience, where demonstrations or proof are not available, nor possible. Even in humans, quantifying pain is considered a challenging task, as it is inherently a subjective experience 4, 6. Opposing to Rose’s inferences, it is argued that pain “is an evolutionary adaptation which helps individuals survive, providing a signal that gives animals the opportunity to remove themselves from damaging situations”. Consequently, pain, which has survival and adaptive value, increases the chances
of passing on genetic makeup to future generations.
Pain is seen, in that case, as originating from the most phylogenetically ancient part of the brain, indicating that  sh should also have the ability to feel pain. However, the part where most disagreement is shown seems to be when it comes to distinguishing between nociception – the physical, unconscious response to noxious stimuli resulting in a behavior change, pain – a psychological (mental) state, and the ability to communicate the feeling verbally, through facial or behavior reactions 1. It is inferred that not all  sh have nociceptors and that  sh cannot communicate pain, thus noxious stimuli must not “feel like anything to a  sh” 6. Some scientists have questioned however, whether it should be assumed
that avoidance responses by  sh when they are netted, hooked, live cut etc. should be communication of
pain, which goes back to the survival and adaptive
value of pain. Development of the concept of animal welfare, including  sh welfare, has resulted in further scienti c investigations in  sh pain. Prof. Gregory Neville, RVC, Univ. of London 1 established the criteria for assessment of pain in  sh, which refers to: i. existence of a neurotransmitter, nervous cells and brain structures similar to those conveying pain in mammals, ii. exposure to painful stimuli and assessment of the response in
 sh followed by suppression with analgesic drugs and analgesic blockers, and iii. evidence that  sh are able
to anticipate and thus, avoid the painful stimuli to which they had been exposed to. To demonstrate the  rst assessment criterion, Sneddon et all’s study 1 revealed that rainbow trout possess nociceptors capable of detecting physical and chemical stimuli, such as extreme water temperature and pH exposures. There were found nociceptors - located on the head, and nervous  bers similar to those identi ed in the pain system of other vertebrates. A number of studies had addressed already Gregory Neville’s second assessment criterion showing that  sh would respond aversively to electric shock,  n pinching, Co2 saturated water, niddle pricking, and that their pain-like responses decreased at increased levels of analgesics and opioids 1, 7. Morphine increased pain tolerance in  sh exposed to what would be considered as painful stimuli to other species. Delivery of naloxone, an opioid receptor blocker, reversed the analgetic effect of morphine 1. It was concluded that the study results were consistent with the fact that opioid receptors and endogenous (endorphine-like) opioids are located in the spinal cord and brain of  sh. As for the third criterion proposed by Neville, it is considered that many studies have ful lled it, determining that  sh are able to learn
to avoid aversive stimuli, and thus they can anticipate their effect, which would explain the “keep away from” behavior in given circumstances 1. Although it is currently accepted that, as in the case of mammals and birds, some  sh species can also experience pain, there still

   156   157   158   159   160