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An Urban Experience
WSVA7-0509
FISH DISEASES
USING PRE-PROBIOTICS AND IMMUNOMODULATORS TO PREVENT DISEASES AND MINIMIZE ANTIMICROBIAL USE
D. Palic1
1Chair for Fish Diseases and Fisheries Biology, Ludwig- Maximilians-University Munich, Munich, Germany
USING PRE-/PROBIOTICS AND IMMUNOMODULATORS TO PREVENT DISEASES AND MINIMIZE ANTIMICROBIAL USE
Prof. Dušan Palić, D.V.M., MVSc, Ph.D., CertAqV, Dipl. ECAAH
Chair for Fish Diseases and Fisheries Biology
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians- University Munich
Kaulbachstrasse 37, 80539 Munich, Germany d.palic@lmu.de
Intensive aquaculture systems create a highly stressful environment for fish. Crowding, handling, and manipulation suppress the immune response, and the suppression may be further augmented due to exposure to poor environmental conditions and pollutants. Fish kept under immunosuppressive conditions become highly susceptible to disease. Traditional use of synthetic chemicals and antibiotics to prevent or treat fish diseases has achieved partial success. The emergence of antibiotic-resistant microbes and rising concerns about the effects of chemotherapeutics on the surrounding ecosystems present today’s industry with challenges to find alternative approaches to prevent diseases. The use of vaccines in aquatic animal disease prevention and control has advanced in recent years, but with limited success. An alternative practical approach to increase disease resistance and vaccination success with reduced use of chemotherapeutics is necessary for continuous growth of the aquaculture industry globally. These alternative approaches, such as use of pre-pro biotics (synbiotics) and immunomodulators, can be used to complement and potentially improve chemotherapeutics treatments, vaccination success, disease resistance, and well-being of fish in intensive aquaculture operations, but also in ornamental fish trade, retail and home aquariums. This presentation reviews major advances in dietary application of pre/pro biotics and immunomodulating compounds to food and ornamental finfish
PREbiotic is defined as selectively fermented ingredient that allows specific changes, both in the composition and/or activity in the gastrointestinal microflora that confers benefits upon host well-being and health”. Other
dietary fibers also may fit the definition of prebiotics, such as resistant starch, pectin, beta-glucans, and xylooligosaccharides. Prebiotics can also be defined as: “food ingredients that help support growth of probiotic bacteria” or “nondigestible substances that act as food for the gut microbiota. Essentially, prebiotics stimulate growth or activity of certain healthy bacteria living in
the body of an animal (in this case fish). It is however to note that the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) differentiates between “prebiotic” and “dietary fiber”
with maintaining the opinion that “a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of the food constituents which are the subject of the health claims and a beneficial physiological effect related to increasing numbers of gastrointestinal microbiota”. Therefore, under EFSA rules individual ingredients cannot carry a “probiotic” label, but can only be listed as dietary fiber and with no implication of health benefits
Table 1. Different prebiotic substances used in aquatic animal production (adapted from Song et al.).
PRObiotics are defined as live microorganisms that are believed to provide health benefits when consumed, and the term is currently used to name ingested microorganisms associated with benefits for humans and animals. Although there are numerous claimed benefits of using commercial probiotics, such as reducing gastrointestinal discomfort, improving immune health, relieving constipation, or avoiding the common cold, such claims are not backed by scientific evidence and are prevented as deceptive advertisements in
the United States by the Federal Trade Commission. Probiotics are considered to be generally safe, but they may cause bacteria-host interactions and unwanted side effects in rare cases. Live probiotic cultures are available in fermented dairy products and probiotic fortified foods. However, tablets, capsules, powders, and sachets containing the bacteria in freeze-dried form are also available, and have been frequently added to commercially available pet foods, including ornamental fish food but also recently as part of some
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 42ND WORLD SMALL ANIMAL VETERINARY ASSOCIATION CONGRESS AND FECAVA 23RD EUROCONGRESS
  













































































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