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An Urban Experience
Table 3. Application of synbiotic (pre/probiotic) combinations in different aquatic organisms (adapted from Cerezeula et al.).
Immunomodulators are a diverse array of recombinant, synthetic and natural preparations. Essentially,
any compound that can modulate the immune
system responses in a way signi cant enough to
be used for immunotherapy, is considered to be an immunomodulator. However, dietary application of immunomodulators is rather restrictive in that only
a small subset of possible treatments (varying from cytokines to corticosteroids) has been subjected to scrutiny of scienti c investigation. One major subgroup
of natural immunomodulating substances are structural polysaccharide elements of the plant and yeast cell walls, namely glucan molecules.Stimulatory effects of yeast
cell wall components on neutrophils, as well as other components of the immune system, have long been recognized, and potent activation of neutrophil function, including an increase in phagocytosis and killing has been described in vitro. Differences in technology used
to extract ß-glucans can lead to marked differences in the immunostimulatory activity. New technologies for extraction enable inexpensive, high volume production of one of the most active ß-glucans, originating from baker’s yeast cell wall. Several companies are now producing readily accessible and reasonably priced yeast products that can be used as food additives and Diamond V is
one of them. The stimulatory effect of dietary ß-glucan from yeast on neutrophil function, and increased disease resistance against several bacteria has been recently demonstrated in different  sh and crustacean species. The emerging issue related to use of ß-glucan from yeast as a food additive is the determination of the duration and dose necessary to provide the best protection.
References:
1. Huynh, Truong-Giang, et al. “Current applications, selection, and possible mechanisms of actions of synbiotics in improving the growth and health status in aquaculture: A review.” Fish Shell sh Immunol. 2017; 64: 367-382.
2. Oliana Carnevali, Francesca Maradonna, Giorgia Gioacchini, Integrated control of  sh metabolism, wellbeing and reproduction: The role of probiotic, Aquaculture, Volume 472, 1 April 2017, Pages 144-155.
3. Cerezuela R, Meseguer J, Esteban MA. Current knowledge in Synbiotic use for  sh aquaculture: a review. J Aquac Res Development. 2011; 1:1-7.
4. Cruz PM, Ibanez AL, Hermosillo OAM, Saad HCR. Use of Probiotic in Aquaculture. ISRN Microbiol. 2012; 1-13. doi:10.5402/2012/916845.
5. Song SK, Beck BR, Kim D, Park J, Kim J, Kim HD et al. Prebiotics as immunostimulants in aquaculture: A review. Fish Shell sh Immunol. 2014; 40:40-48.
42ND WORLD SMALL ANIMAL VETERINARY ASSOCIATION CONGRESS AND FECAVA 23RD EUROCONGRESS


































































































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