Page 190 - ONLINE PROCEEDING BOOK WSAVA 2017
P. 190

An Urban Experience
WSVA7-0313
GLOBAL NUTRITION
CHEW ON THIS: DENTISTRY AND NUTRITION
M. Chandler1
1Vets Now Referrals, Nutrition, Lasswade Midlothian, United Kingdom
DENTAL DISEASE AND DIET
THE NUTRITIONIST VIEW
Marjorie L Chandler DVM, MS, MANZCVS, DACVN, DACVIM, MRCVS
Vets Now Referrals 123-145 North Street, Glasgow UK G3 7DA
marge.chandler@vets-now.com
Dry vs moist petfoods
A common perception in small animal practice is that feeding dry petfoods decreases plaque and calculus compared to canned foods. Biting into a hard kibble would seem to clean the teeth; actually moist foods
may have similar effects to typical dry foods on dental health. As the pet bites into a typical kibble, it shatters and crumbles, providing little mechanical cleaning. In one study, dogs and cats eating soft foods did have more plaque and gingivitis than those eating a more  brous food1 and there was a signi cant bene t of feeding commercial dog and cat foods compared to homemade foods when at least part of the diet was a dry petfood2. Feeding homemade foods vs commercial wet and/
or dry foods showed that feeding a homemade diet increased the probability of oral health problems in cats2. Another study also show an improvement in periodontal disease, tartar and decreased lymphadenopathy in cats fed dry food compared to soft or homemade food3. In other studies, moist foods have shown a similar effect to typical dry foods on plaque and calculus accumulation4,5
Dental diets and treats
Some foods and treats for dental cleaning have a texture which maximizes the contact with the teeth. Foods with the right shape, size and physical structure can provide plaque, stain and calculus control. A 6 month study comparing feeding a dental diet to a typical maintenance diet showed about a third less plaque and gingival in ammation with the dental diet. A dental diet fed to Beagles signi cantly decreased pre-existing plaque, calculus and gingivitis, whereas these increased on a maintenance diet6. The type of  bre in dental diets is thought to exercise gums, promote gingival keratinisation and clean teeth. Dental treats need to be very hard, and can sometimes fracture teeth.
Additives
Some diets and treats contain antibiotics or additives
to retard or inhibit plaque or calculus, e.g. sodium hexametaphosphate (HMP) which forms soluble complexes with calcium and decreases the amount available for forming calculus. Adding HMP to a dry diet decreased calculus in dogs by nearly 80%7, although another study showed no difference in plaque or calculus when HMP-coated biscuits were fed to dogs for 3 weeks8.
Veterinary Oral Health Council (VOHC)
A way to check if a food or treat prevents or decreases plaque or calculus is its approval by the VOHC (vohc. org). The VOHC is a non-regulatory agency which includes representatives from professional dental associations, AVMA, AAHA, FDA, private practice
and industry. The VOHC provides independent and objective reviews of tests of dental products submitted in accordance with their protocols, although they do not provide testing themselves. The VOHC awards a Seal of Acceptance for two categories: helps control plaque and helps control tartar.
Vitamin de ciencies
De ciencies in vitamin A, C, D and E and the B vitamins folic acid, niacin, pantothenic acid and ribo avin
have been associated with gingival disease. These
are adequate in diets which meet AAFCO or FEDIAF guidelines but can be de cient in other diets, such as many homemade diets.
Natural diets and feeding raw bones
Proponents of natural foods or feeding raw bones have claimed improvement in cleanliness of pet’s teeth; further claims are sometimes made that feeding commercial petfood contributes to the high prevalence of periodontal disease. However, a study in foxhounds fed raw carcasses, including raw bones, showed that they had varying degrees of periodontal disease as well as a high prevalence of tooth fractures9. The skulls of 29 African wild dogs eating a “natural diet”, mostly wild antelope, showed evidence of periodontal disease (41%), teeth wearing (83%) and fractured teeth (48%)10.
Small feral cats on Marion Island (South Africa) eating a variety of natural foods (mostly birds) showed periodontal disease in 61%, although only 9% had evidence of calculus 11. Australian feral cats eating a mixed natural diet had less calculus compared to domestic cats fed dry or canned commercial food, although again there was
no difference in the prevalence of periodontal disease12. These studies show that a diet containing raw bones does appear to confer some protection against dental
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42ND WORLD SMALL ANIMAL VETERINARY ASSOCIATION CONGRESS AND FECAVA 23RD EUROCONGRESS


































































































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