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Microbiome and Probiotics
The sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes shows the human skin surface inhabited by a highly diverse and variable microbiota; similarly, dogs’ skin is also inhabited by rich and diverse microbial communities12. Sequence data shows high individual variability between samples. Differences in species richness and was also seen between healthy and allergic dogs, with allergic dogs having lower species richness compared to healthy dogs.
Probiotic products differ widely in composition and number of microbes; however, there is some evidence that some products have an immunomodulatory effect. Their use has been suggested as an adjunct treatment for canine AD. Administration of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus sakeiprobio-65 for 2 months signi cantly reduced the disease severity index in experimental dogs AD13. Another study showed probiotic K71 used as a complementary therapy provided a corticosteroid and ciclosporine sparing effect14.
Effect of food processing
Food processing including heating can decrease or increase the allergenicity, generally decreasing it by destroying conformational epitopes, although the Maillard reaction (glycation when heating amino acids and reducing sugars, e.g. browning of foods) may increase it. Norwak-W) An abstract on a small study in dogs showed raw horse meat and canned products had less proteins reacting with IgE compared to dry foods and cooked horse/potato; cooked  sh proteins were less reactive with IgE compared to raw15.
REFERENCES
1. Cornegliani L, Vercelli A, Sala E, et al. Transepidermal water loss in healthy and atopic dogs, treated and untreated: a comparative preliminary study. Vet Derm 2011;23:41-44.
2. Hensel P. Nutrition and skin diseases in veterinary medicine. Clin Dermatol 2010;28:686-693.
3. National Research Council. Nutrient requirements of dogs and cats. Washington DC: The National Academies Press; 2006.
4. Reiter LV, Torres SM, Wertz PW. Characterization and quanti cation of ceramides in the nonlesional skin of canine patients with atopic dermatitis compared with controls. Vet Dermatol 2009;20:260-266.
5. Popa I, Pin D, Remoué N, et al. Analysis of epidermal lipids in normal and atopic dogs, before and after administration of an oral omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid feed supplement. A pilot study. Vet Res Commun 2011;35:501-509.
6. Watson AL, Fray TR, Bailey J, et al. Dietary constituents are able to play a bene cial role in canine epidermal barrier function. Exp Dermatol 2006;15:74-81.
7. Outerbridge CA. Nutritional management of skin diseases. In Applied Veterinary Clinical Nutrition. Ed Fascetti AJ and Delaney SJ. WileyBlackwell. 2012 pp157- 174.
8. Plevnik Kapun A, Salobir J, Levart A, et al. Vitamin E supplementation in canine atopic dermatitis: improvement of clinical signs and effects on oxidative stress markers. Vet Rec. 2014; 175(22):560.
9.van Beeck FL, Watson A, Bos M, Biourge V, Willemse T. The effect of long-term feeding of skin barrier-forti ed diets on the owner-assessed incidence of atopic dermatitis symptoms in Labrador retrievers. J Nutr Sci. 2015; 12;4:e5
10. Logas D and Kunkle G. Double-blinded crossover study with marine oil supplementation containing high-dose eicosapentaenoic acid for the treatment of canine pruritic skin disease. Vet Dermatlogy 1994;5(3):99-104.
11. Park H, Park JS, Hayak MG, et al. Dietary  sh oil and  axseed oil suppress in ammation and immunity in cats. Vet Immunol Immunopatho. 2011; 141 (3- 4):301-306.
12. Aline Rodrigues Hoffmann, Adam P. Patterson, Alison Diesel et al The skin microbiome in healthy and allergic dogs. PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e83197.
13. Hyejin Kim, Irfan A Rather, Hyunwook Kim et alA Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled-Trial of a Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus sakei Probio-65 for the Prevention of Canine Atopic Dermatitis. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2015; 25(11):1966-1969.
14. Yuri Ohshima-Terada, Yuki Higuchi, Takehisa Kumagai et Complementary effect of oral administration of Lactobacillus paracasei K71 on canine atopic dermatitis. Vet Dermatol. 2015 ; 26(5):350-3, e74-5.
15. Favrot C, Couturier N and Bihain B. Food processing is associated with changes in the IgE sensitization pro le in dogs. Abstract. Vet Dermatology 2016: 27:68.
An Urban Experience
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