P. 224

An Urban Experience
L. Radosta1
1Florida Veterinary Behavior Service, Veterinarian, West Palm Beach, USA
Anti-anxiety medications, sedatives, atypical antipsychotics and tranquilizers have all been used
to treat emotional disorders in companion animals. The dosages listed here are a combination of those published and those used in clinical practice. Dosages of drugs used in veterinary behavior change as studies are produced and empirical information is obtained. It is recommended that before prescribing a medication, veterinarians research the current dosage and side effects.
Few pharmacokinetics studies are available in dogs
and cats for the medications discussed here. Most drugs used in veterinary behavioral medicine target stress, impulsivity and arousal which are at the root of many behavior problems. Still other drugs are used for sedation. In order to understand the use of medication in the treatment of behavior problems, the clinician should have a basic understanding of the neurobiology of fear and anxiety. The noradrenergic system, dopaminergic system, serotonergic system, GABA-ergic system and the sympathetic nervous system are all involved in the stress response.
The medications discussed here can be very helpful in the treatment of behavior cases in dogs and cats, but they should not be prescribed without a treatment plan including safety recommendations, behavior modi cation and environmental modi cation. These elements are required to meet the standard of care, for a positive long- term outcome and allow the pet to eventually be weaned off of the medication at some point in the future.
When deciding to institute pharmacologic therapy, the veterinary should consider 7 questions:
1) Is the environment conducive to a positive outcome? 2) What is the animal’s latency to arousal?
3) Is the animal’s quality of life affected?
4) Is the animal at risk?
5) Is the behavior predictable?
6) What is the severity of the behavior? 7) What is the recovery time?
While it is impossible to predict how diligently a
particular client will implement the behavior modi cation and management changes, certain factors can be considered when assessing the adequacy of a particular environment. The presence of young children, the number of caretakers in the house, the number of hours that the dog has to be left alone during the day and the owner’s willingness to participate are all factors which will affect outcome. The best ways to assess these factors are to take an accurate history and have an honest conversation with the owner. If the household is clearly de cit in the qualities needed for a positive outcome, a pharmaceutical product should be strongly considered as a part of the treatment plan.
The latency to arousal is the amount of time that it takes for gross signs of the stress response to be able to be observed. For example, a dog who reacts with a stress response to the barometric pressure has a short latency to arousal. Dogs with a short latency to arousal should be considered candidates for treatment with at least one pharmaceutical.
Emotional disorders can signi cantly affect an animal’s quality of life. Daily panic attacks contribute to chronic stress which can cause various sequelae as noted above. If the animal’s stress reaction is intense on a daily basis, a pharmaceutical should be considered as a part of the treatment plan.
The assessment of risk to the patient is dependent on owner attitude toward the patient and the problem as well as the strength of the human-animal bond. If the owner is considering euthanasia or if the pet is causing injury to herself, a pharmaceutical should be considered for the patient.
The veterinarian should consider the severity of the problem. If the problem is moderate or severe, the patient should be considered for pharmaceutical intervention.
Finally, the veterinarian should consider if the behavior is predictable. If the behavior is not predictable, the patient may be in need of a pharmaceutical.
The chart below is a general guideline for prescribing decisions. For certain cases where the risk is great enough to outweigh all other parameters, the veterinarian may decide to prescribe a medication as
a part of treatment. In other cases, patients may have multiple “yes” answers in the prescribe column and the veterinarian may choose behavior modi cation only.

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