P. 226

An Urban Experience
K. Martin1
1TEAM Education in Animal Behavior, Behavior, Spicewood, USA
Reducing Leash Reactivity in Dogs
Kenneth M Martin DVM, DACVB
Veterinary Behavior Consultations; TEAM Education in Animal Behavior, Spicewood, Texas, USA
The reactive dog may be unable to focus on the handler in novel or unfamiliar environments, lose control with the sight or sounds of other dogs, and may lunge or pull when on leash in the presence of people, animals (cats, squirrels, birds, etc.), or other stimuli (cars, bikes, buses, planes, etc.). In this lecture, reactivity is the term used to describe pulling, lunging, growling, barking, snapping, and biting. Reactivity is a general and nonspeci c term that may encompass motivations of anxiety, fear, arousal, excitement, con ict, and frustration. The focus of this lecture is not the diagnosis and treatment of canine aggression, rather to provide attendees with practical insight into how reactivity on leash can be modi ed. Topics covered will brie y include safety, controlling the learning environment, and the application of response substitution (operant counter conditioning) on walks.
The main emphasis will be on teaching the cues look, watch, touch & go and leash pressure. Using a marker for operant conditioning and reinforcement with food, one can change the classically conditioned emotional responses to various stimuli.
Although the goal is to keep the dog below its level for reactivity, for the safety of the owner, pet, and others, these recommendations should only be made if it is deemed that the owner is capable of keeping their pet under their control while implementing these exercises. Pending the case, additional safety precautions might include, a head collar, double leash system, basket muzzle, and citronella spray deterrent (as a deterrent to the approach of off leash dogs).
Training Tools
The following training tools will be needed: Clicker, high value reinforcers (ideally small readily consumed food treats), treat bag, 4 to 6 foot leash, well  tted buckle collar or harness, and sturdy athletic shoes for the trainer/owner. Other supplies may also be necessary as noted in the safety section.
The Training Process
The S.T.A.R.R.TM Method stands for a Systematic, Team, Approach to Reducing Reactivity. The training process is broken down into the anacronym A.C.E.S.TM for ordering the training process. The  rst two steps are Association and Cues. The  nal steps are Exposure and Systematic Desensitization. This presentation will focus on how Association and Cues are incorporated into Exposure, such as the everyday walk. When dogs show over- reactivity or hyper-vigilance to stimuli, the following is a general example of the  rst exercises we have owners implement in their everyday routine.
The  rst step is Association, whereby stimuli become associated with earning really good stuff for the dog. The focus is on classical counter conditioning but it also includes the marking of operant behavior. A marker or clicker is used to help pinpoint the exact moment
the dog earns the treat. In order to avoid the clicker becoming associated only with aversive stimuli, clicker training should be used in a variety of contexts before using it around triggers of reactivity. On these walks the owner is instructed to focus on clicking/treating two things: offered “check ins” with the owner or noticing stimuli in the environment. They are also to maintain a substantial distance from stimuli to help keep the dog below threshold of reactivity. The goal at this point is not to get close to stimuli but instead have brief exposure to stimuli from a distance that does not elicit reactivity from the dog. Exposure is brief to classically condition a positive emotional response to stimuli.
For example, a dog that has a history of barking and pulling on leash towards unfamiliar people and/or dogs on walks when the stimulus is a half block away, we would start with marking/clicking the  rst instance the dog notices a stimulus. The owner is walking the dog and notices her dog’s ears perk forward and he  xes
his gaze in the direction of a person getting out of a
car about a block away. The owner should click that instant and then give a high value treat. Treats may be given every 1-2 seconds or continuously as the dog navigates past the stimulus. Alternately, the owner may elect to change direction to avoid further escalation of the behavior (this will dependent on the individual dog). Since the dog will already be conditioned to the clicker, it should be expected that upon hearing the click, the dog will orient towards the owner for the reinforcer. If the dog is unable to reorient after hearing the click, that is information to the owner that the dog is over threshold or too distracted by the stimulus. The owner will need to redirect the dog and get further away from the stimulus.

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