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An Urban Experience
B. Van Ryssen1, J. Saunders1 1 Merelbeke, Belgium
Medial coronoid disease (MCD) refers to different types of lesions of the medial coronoid process of the ulna. Until recently the term ‘fragmented coronoid process’ was utilized but with the growing knowledge about
this disorder – largely thanks to CT and arthroscopy-, this term became insuf cient to cover the different abnormalities that can be found at the level of the medial coronoid process. The term ‘medial compartment disease’ has also been used to name medial coronoid lesions, but this may lead to confusion because of the broader anatomic signi cance including the medial part of the humeral condyle.
Medial coronoid disease is the most important elbow disorder in large breed dogs and is part of the elbow dysplasia complex together with osteochondritis dissecans of the humeral condyle (OCD) and an ununited anconeal process (UAP). Initially MCD was considered
as a developmental problem affecting young large breed dogs. In the last decade, it has also been reported
in adult and old dogs. In those cases, imaging and arthroscopic  ndings are similar with the lesions seen
in young dogs, but the severity and the distribution of the different types of lesions is different. In older dogs two groups of lesions can be diagnosed: the chronic lesions with clear clinical, radiographic and arthroscopic pathology and the more recent lesions with discrete changes.
Medial coronoid disease has also been reported as a
rare cause of front leg lameness in small breed dogs. Often small breeds are affected at an adult age. The lesions are similar with those of large breed dogs, but the diagnosis may be challenging because of the small size of the joints. Besides MCD several other disorders should be included in the differential diagnosis of elbow pain. Elbow incongruity is characterized by a short radius, a short ulna or an abnormal shape of the trochlear notch.
It is considered as one of the causes of elbow dysplasia and is therefore often seen in combination with the disorders belonging to the elbow dysplasia complex. Osteochondritis dissecans of the medial aspect of the humeral condyle is characterized by a cartilage  ap
or defect and is often combined with medial coronoid disease. Lesions may be discrete and radiographic diagnosis may be missed in case of small lesions or improper positioning of the joint. An ununited anconeal process can easily be diagnosed because of the obvious
fragmentation of the anconeal process. Since MCD
may occur simultaneously with an ununited anconeal process, the joint should be examined carefully. Medial compartment erosion can be seen in a varying severity and is diagnosed under different circumstances: the erosions may be present in chronic cases of MCD in joints with a large coronoid fragment (kissing lesions), after surgical treatment of medial coronoid lesions or without any evident underlying cause. In the last case, the lesions should be considered as a primary form of medial compartment erosion, representing a differential diagnosis for MCD because of similar radiographic  ndings. Flexor enthesopathy is a recently recognized cause of elbow pain originating from the  exor muscles and their attachment to the medial humeral epicondyle. Radiographic  ndings vary form discrete sclerosis and spur formation at the medial epicondyle to obvious calci ed bodies within the  exor muscles. The main challenge is to differentiate primary  exor enthesopathy as the sole lesion from the concomitant form combining  exor pathology and MCD. A rare disorder is an incomplete ossi cation of the humeral condyle (IOHC): besides being the cause of complex elbow fractures induced by a limited trauma, this developmental disorder may cause elbow pain in young and young adult
dogs. The intercondylar defect is most clearly seen
on a craniocaudal projection on the condition that the radiographic beam follows the direction of the  ssure.
A diagnosis of MCD is suspected based on the history (mostly young, large breed dogs, non-traumatic cause of insidious or acute lameness), and the clinical examination demonstrating muscle atrophy, distension, a decreased range of motion and pain. The clinical  ndings may be obvious but also discrete or even absent. In most cases diagnosis can be con rmed by the typical radiographic  ndings: an unclear delineation or abnormal shape the medial coronoid process and in some cases a bony fragment cranial to the affected medial coronoid process. Concomitant  ndings are subtrochlear bone sclerosis, incongruity and secondary osteoarthritis. Radiographic diagnosis of MCD may be challenging because of unclear or discrete pathology, particularly in the absence of clear clinical  ndings. In those obscure cases of MCD, scintigraphy may be used to localize the problem.
Computed tomograhy is the preferred non-invasive tool for further diagnostic workup of the elbow following inconclusive radiographs. Findings of the medial coronoid process vary from one or more loose fragments, a non- displaced fragment or a discrete  ssure. Early secondary osteoarthritis, joint incongruity and subtrochlear bone sclerosis can be accurately determined. Other elbow disorders, such as OCD, IOHC and  exor enthesopathy can be demonstrated or excluded.

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