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Arthroscopy allows the direct inspection of the joint surfaces and remains the golden standard for the evaluation of cartilage lesions. However, some lesions may be missed: subchondral bone cracks may not show as a cartilage lesion and large displaced fragments may not be visible. The combination of CT and arthroscopy increases the diagnostic accuracy in many cases.
Because of the small size of the joint, ultrasonography (limited acoustic window) and MRI (limited bone detail and lack of distinction between the cartilage of the humerus, ulna and radius) are less useful in the diagnosis of MCD.
References
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De Bakker E, Samoy Y, Gielen I, Van Ryssen B. Medial humeral epicondylar lesions in the canine elbow. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2011;24:9-17.
De Bakker E, Gielen I, Saunders JH, Polis I, Vermeire S, Peremans K, Van Ryssen, B. Primary and concomitant  exor enthesopathy of the canine elbow. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2013a ;26 :425-434.
De Bakker E, Saunders JH, van Bree H, Gielen I, Van Ryssen B. Radiographic features of primary and concomitant  exor enthesopathy in the canine elbow. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2013b;54 :107-113.
Fitzpatrick N, Smith TJ, Evans RB, Yeadon R. Radiographic and arthroscopic  ndings in the elbow joints of 263 dogs with medial coronoid disease. Vet Surg 2009;38,213-223.
Griffon JD. Surgical Diseases of the Elbow. In: Tobias, K. M. and Johnston S. A. (Editors) Veterinary Surgery Small Animal, Elsevier Inc., 2012 ; p.725-751.
Meyer-Lindenberg A, Langhann A, Fehr M, Nolte I. Prevalence of fragmented medial coronoid process of the ulna in lame adult dogs. Vet Rec 2002;151:230- 234.
Moores AP, Benigni L, Lamb CR. Computed tomography versus arthroscopy for detection of canine elbow dysplasia lesions. Vet Surg 2008;37:390-398.
Van Ryssen B, van Bree H. Arthroscopic  ndings in 100 dogs with elbow lameness. Vet Rec 1997;40:360-362.
Van Ryssen B, de Bakker E, Baumlin Y, Samoy Y, Van Vynckt D, Gielen I, van Bree H. Primary  exor enthesopathy of the canine elbow: imaging and arthroscopic  ndings in 8 dogs with discrete radiographic changes. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2012;25:239-245.
Vermote K, Bergenhuyzen A, Gielen I, van Bree H, Duchateau L, Van Ryssen B. Elbow lameness in dogs of six years and older: arthroscopic and imaging  ndings of medial coronoid process disease in 51 dog. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2010;23:43-50.
Villamonte-Chevalier A, van Bree H, Broeckx BJG, Dingemanse W, Van Ryssen B, Gielen I. Assessment of medial coronoid disease in 180 canine lame elbow joints: a sensitivity and speci city comparison of radiographic, computed tomographic and arthroscopic  ndings. BMC Vet Res 2015;11,243 - doi: 10.1186/s12917- 015-0556-9.
An Urban Experience
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