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Prevention: Injections in cats should all ways be
given at sites at which surgery would likely lead to
a complete cure with the least complicated surgical procedure (such as distal limbs, tail or lateral abdomen). In addition, vaccination should only be performed only as often as necessary and as infrequently as possible. Practioners and owners should monitor the vaccination site for swelling or lumps and should follow the 3-2-
1 rule: Incisional wedge biopsies or total removal for histopathological examination of any mass is warranted if the mass is still present 3 months after vaccination, is more than 2 cm in diameter or is increasing in size one month after vaccination.
On the horizon
The future diagnosis, management and prognostication of feline ISS likely will likely include biomarkers, molecular diagnostic techniques, molecular imaging (PET-CT, PET- MRI), as well as intraoperative methods such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) to delineate tumor and healthy tissues intraoperatively. Furthermore development of speci c immune therapeutic approaches are being evaluated and electrochemotherapy studies have been reported which appear promising.
Selected references
Hartmann K, Day MJ, et al. European Advisory Board on Cat Diseases. Feline injection-site sarcoma: ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. J Feline Med Surg. 2015 Jul;17(7):606-13.
Vaccine-Associated Feline Sarcoma Task Force. The current understanding
and management of vaccine-associated sarcomas in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:1821–1842.
Phelps HA, Kuntz CA, et al. Radical excision with  ve-centimeter margins for treatment of feline injection-site sarcomas: 91 cases (1998-2002). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2011 Jul 1;239(1):97-106
Mesa KJ, Selmic LE, et al. Intraoperative optical coherence tomography for soft tissue sarcoma differentiation and margin identi cation. Lasers Surg Med. 2017 Mar;49(3):240-248.
Spugnini et al. Vet J 2009,
Tozon et al. Electrochemotherapy with intravenous bleomycin injection: an observational study in super cial squamous cell carcinoma in cats. J Feline Med Surg 2014.
Spugnini et al. Electroporation Enhances Bleomycin Ef cacy in Cats with Periocular Carcinoma and Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head. J Vet Intern Med, 2009.
An Urban Experience

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