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used as early as 4 weeks of age as a single vaccination. The VGG now recommends that where Leptospira vaccines are used in puppies, the required two doses of vaccine be co-delivered with core vaccines during the puppy schedule (for example at 8 and 12 weeks of age).
A major difference between MLV core vaccines and all of the non-core vaccines is that non-core vaccines (where used) require annual boosters as their DOI is no greater than the licensed 12 month period. Adult dogs given non-core vaccines must therefore receive these annually. In many situations therefore, adult dogs receive ‘annual revaccination’, but just with fewer components than might have been used in the past.
The Annual Health Check
All aspects of vaccination should fall under an annual health check programme that reduces the emphasis on vaccination as the primary reason for visiting the practice and considers holistically the overall health and wellbeing of the pet in a preventive healthcare programme. A discussion about which vaccines (or serological tests) might be offered in any one year is just one part of the annual health check. The importance of vaccination can be reinforced by using the VGG fact sheets available from the WSAVA website. Vaccination (or serology) should
be appropriately invoiced so emphasis is placed on the professional consultation.
1. Welborn LV, DeVries JG, Ford R et al. 2011 AAHA canine vaccination guidelines. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2011. 47: 5.
2. Day MJ, Horzinek M, Schultz RD, Squires. Guidelines for the vaccination of dogs and cats. J Small Anim Pract. 2016. 57:E1-E45.
3. Day MJ, Karkare U, Schultz RD, Squires R, Tsujimoto H. Recommendations on vaccination for Asian small animal practitioners: a report of the WSAVA Vaccination Guidelines Group. J Small Anim Pract. 2015. 56.
4. Day MJ. Small animal vaccination: a practical guide for vets in the UK. In Practice. 2017. 39: 110-118.
5. Ball C, Dawson S, Williams N. Leptospira cases and vaccination habits within UK vet-visiting dogs. Vet Rec. 2014. 174: 278.
6. Schultz RD, Thiel R, Mukhtar E et al. Age and long-term protective immunity in dogs and cats. J Comp Pathol. 2010. 142: S102-08.
7. Mitchell SA, Zwinjnenberg RJ, Huang J et al. Duration of serological response to canine parvovirus-type 2, canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus type 1 and canine parainfluenza virus in client-owned dogs in Australia. Aust Vet J. 2012. 90: 468-73.
An Urban Experience

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