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An Urban Experience
benzoate is considered more palatable than the more common form manufactured in the United States.
Topical therapeutic products, including antibiotic ointment may be applied depending on the nature of
the injury and advantages of using the product for that particular case. When prescribing a topical ointment for avian use caution must always be taken into account. Owners need to be educated on the application process, using only a small amount to treat the lesion to reduce the possibility of feather matting. Topical ointments containing corticosteroids are not recommended for avian species due the high potential for severe side effects. Preparation-H® (Wyeth Laboratories, Marietta
PA USA) has been advocated for dermal wounds to decrease the healing time. An active ingredient in the Preparation-H® ointment is live yeast cell derivative that increases the respiratory component of the epithelium surrounding the wound thereby increasing the healing capacity of the tissue. There has been a recent advance in wound management with the advent of Tricide® (Molecular Therapeutics, LLC, Athens, GA USA). This product is an antimicrobial potentiator used to  ush the wound bed and control infection. Some topical antibiotic preparations that have been used with success by the authors are triple antibiotic ointments (e.g., Neosporin®, P zer Inc, New York, NY USA) and silver sulfadiazine cream (SSD) (Smith & Nephew Heath Care, London).
Appropriate bandage material is extremely important
in wound management. Nonstick surface bandaging material (Adaptic®, Ethicon Inc., Arlington, TX USA) will protect the tissue bed and prevent leakage of serum
into the contact layer and thereby prevent adhesion of the bandage to the wound. Semiocclusive dressings (Tegaderm®, 3M Diegem, Belgium) also aid in the healing of skin lesions but may be dif cult to apply because
of poor adhesive qualities. Tissue glue (Nexaband®, Veterinary Products Laboratories, Phoenix, AZ USA)
or cyanoacrylic bandages have been used to repair minor skin lacerations or incision sites. Although
tissue glue is convenient to use for the appropriate
injury, it can be expensive and the shelf life has been disappointingly short. Cyanoacrylic bandages have
been advocated to cover larger tissue defects in the past, but there is a product that is more tissue friendly allowing for reepithelization and tissue respiration. VET BIOSISTTM (VBS) (Smiths Medical, Dublin, OH USA) is an extracellular matrix derived from the submucosal layer of the porcine small intestine. The protein matrix bandage, which consists of mainly of Type I collagen with some Type III and V present, is freeze dried to preserve the structural integrity of the product. VET BIOSIST TM can be used on large skin wounds that cannot be closed by primary intension. The affected area should be prepared for bandaging using standard techniques prior to the
application of VBS. Once applied to the wound, the
VBS should be sutured in place using 4.0 or smaller diameter mono lament resorbable suture material. It is very important to remember that VBS needs to have an aqueous dermal gel applied, so the matrix sheet remains moist during the healing process. If the bandage is maintained properly and not rejected by the patient then the protein matrix should serve as an epithelial framework in which the bandage material is incorporated into the host tissue. Nonadhesive bandage material should cover the VBS prior to applying an appropriate outer dressing. The outer dressing should be changed daily when reapplying the aqueous dermal gel to maintain the VBS hydration status. CARRASORBTM (Veterinary Products Laboratories, Phoenix, AZ USA) is another product that protects dermal lesions and speeds the healing process. CARRASORBTM is a freeze dried gel that is manufactured for application on medium exudating wounds. It
contains the ingredient acemannen, which is a complex carbohydrate product derived from the aloe vera plant, and can be applied topically to a dermal lesion that has been prepared similar to the manner described for VBS.
Items needed to complete bandages include cast padding, gauze sponges, VetWrap® (3M, Diegem, Belgium), Elasticon® (Johnson & Johnson Medical Inc., Arlington, TX USA) (and white cloth tape (waterproof and nonwaterproof. Fiberglas cast material, temperature sensitive cast material (Vet-liteTM, Runlite S.A., Micheroux, Belgium) and UV light sensitive dental acrylic (TriadTM, Henry Schein, Port Arthur, NY USA) are used to make splints and wound bandages for the nonpsitticine avian species. Pins, wire and aluminum rods are used for beak structure foundations prior to the application of prosthesis and for foot braces respectively.
*Sections of the material contained in this proceedings article was previously published: Riggs SM, Tully TN: Wound management in nonpsittacine birds. Vet Clin N Am (Exotic Anim Pract) 7:19-34, 2004.

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