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a blood pressure or vascular cuff that is placed surgically around proximal urethra with a loose fit.(7) A tube connects the device with a subcutaneously implanted injection port providing a means to increase pressure within the device and therefore urethral pressure in area of internal urethral sphincter. Surgical techniques (e.g. slings, plication, culposuspension) have been described, but results are variable.(8)
Reflex dyssynergia refers to an incoordination between bladder contraction and urethral relaxation. The patient usually postures normally, initiates a good stream,
but stream stops yet animal continues to posture and attempt to void. Treatment involves relaxing urethra as described. If bladder does not completely empty despite urethral relaxation, then add parasympathomimetic therapy.
REFERENCES
1. Byron JK. Micturition Disorders. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2015;45(4):769-82.
2. Forsee KM, Davis GJ, Mouat EE, Salmeri KR, Bastian RP. Evaluation of the prevalence of urinary incontinence in spayed female dogs: 566 cases (2003-2008). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2013;242(7):959-62.
3. Claeys S, Rustichelli F, Noel S, Hamaide A. Clinical evaluation of a single daily dose of phenylpropanolamine in the treatment of urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence in the bitch. Can Vet J. 2011;52(5):501-5.
4. Mandigers RJ, Nell T. Treatment of bitches with acquired urinary incontinence with oestriol. Vet Rec. 2001;149(25):764-7.
5. Donovan CE, Gordon JM, Kutzler MA. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone immunization for the treatment of urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence in ovariectomized bitches. Theriogenology. 2014;81(2):196- 202.
6. Byron JK, Chew DJ, McLoughlin ML. Retrospective evaluation of urethral bovine cross-linked collagen implantation for treatment of urinary incontinence in female dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2011;25(5):980-4.
7. Reeves L, Adin C, McLoughlin M, Ham K, Chew D. Outcome after placement of an artificial urethral sphincter in 27 dogs. Vet Surg. 2013;42(1):12-8.
8. Martinoli S, Nelissen P, White RA. The outcome of combined urethropexy and colposuspension for management of bitches with urinary incontinence associated with urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence. Vet Surg. 2014;43(1):52-7.
An Urban Experience
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