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An Urban Experience
In cats primary glomerular disease is most often the References:
result of either amyloidosis or membranous nephropathy with the latter condition typically affecting male cats
(7:1 male: female) that are younger than the normal demographic of cats with CKD (median 6 years). In dogs primary glomerular disease can be largely considered
as either immune mediated or non-immune mediated disease with the latter category encompassing a number of breed specific, familial and congenital conditions affecting the structure of the glomerular filtration barrier e.g. amyloidosis (Shar-pei), COL4 mutation (Cocker Spaniel). For patients with immune mediated glomerular disease, diagnostic investigations must determine whether the condition is primary or secondary to another underlying disease process (e.g. systemic immune mediated disease, infectious disease, neoplasia).(12)
In key situations, renal biopsy may be required in order
to determine the exact aetiology of glomerular disease with submission to the International Veterinary Renal Pathology Service (IVRPS international-veterinary-renal-pathology-service-ivrps) permitting evaluation of renal tissue by transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence in addition to routine histopathology. Based on a recent pathology study from this centre, approximately 50% of dogs with proteinuria will have an immune mediated aetiology for their glomerular disease.
1. Grauer GF. Proteinuria: Measurement and Interpretation. Topics in companion animal medicine. 2011;26(3):121-7.
2. Syme HM. Proteinuria in Cats. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery. 2009 March 1, 2009;11(3):211-8.
3. Vaden SL, Elliott J. Management of Proteinuria in Dogs and Cats with Chronic Kidney Disease. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice. 2016 11//;46(6):1115-30.
4. Rossi G, Bertazzolo W, Dondi F, Binnella M, Gruarin M, Scarpa P, et al. The effect of inter-laboratory variability on the protein:creatinine (UPC) ratio in canine urine. The Veterinary Journal. 2015 4//;204(1):66-72.
5. Rossi G, Giori L, Campagnola S, Zatelli A, Zini E, Paltrinieri S. Evaluation of factors that affect analytic variability of urine protein-to-creatinine ratio determination in dogs. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2012 2012/06/01;73(6):779-88.
6. LeVine DN, Zhang D, Harris T, Vaden SL. The use of pooled vs serial urine samples to measure urine protein:creatinine ratios. Veterinary Clinical Pathology. 2010;39(1):53-6.
7. Nabity MB, Boggess MM, Kashtan CE, Lees GE. Day-to-Day Variation of the Urine Protein: Creatinine Ratio in Female Dogs with Stable Glomerular Proteinuria Caused by X-Linked Hereditary Nephropathy. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 2007;21(3):425-30.
8. Duffy ME, Specht A, Hill RC. Comparison between Urine Protein: Creatinine Ratios of Samples Obtained from Dogs in Home and Hospital Settings. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 2015:n/a-n/a.
9. Vaden SL, Pressler BM, Lappin MR, Jensen WA. Effects of urinary tract inflammation and sample blood contamination on urine albumin and total protein concentrations in canine urine samples. Veterinary Clinical Pathology. 2004;33(1):14-9.
10. Jacob F, Polzin DJ, Osborne CA, Neaton JD, Kirk CA, Allen TA, et al. Evaluation of the association between initial proteinuria and morbidity rate
or death in dogs with naturally occurring chronic renal failure. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2005 2005/02/01;226(3):393-400.
11. Syme HM, Markwell PJ, Pfeiffer D, Elliott J. Survival of cats with naturally occurring chronic renal failure is related to severity of proteinuria. J Vet Intern Med. 2006;20(3):528-35.
12. Subgroup ICGSGD, Littman MP, Daminet S, Grauer GF, Lees GE, van Dongen AM. Consensus Recommendations for the Diagnostic Investigation of Dogs with Suspected Glomerular Disease. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 2013;27:S19-S26.

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