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from dogs before treatment and those from dogs
under treatment with no clinical relapse. Resistance
was consistent in three forms of the parasite strains tested including intracellular amastigotes, promastigotes and axenic amastigotes (6). These  ndings indicate
that resistance to allopurinol may develop in dogs experiencing clinical disease relapse which may transmit resistant parasite to other dogs and also enhance the danger of transmission the parasite to humans.
In conclusion, the treatment of CanL would bene t from the development of new effective drugs which would be able to eliminate infection from dogs and would not be used for treatment of humans thus reducing the danger of formation of drug resistant parasites that would be passed on to humans.
1. Baneth, G., A. F. Koutinas, L. Solano-Gallego, P. Bourdeau, and L. Ferrer. 2008. Canine leishmaniosis - new concepts and insights on an expanding zoonosis: part one. Trends Parasitol 24:324-330.
2. Miro, G., L. Cardoso, M. G. Pennisi, G. Oliva, and G. Baneth. 2008. Canine leishmaniosis--new concepts and insights on an expanding zoonosis: part two. Trends Parasitol 24:371-377.
3. 2009. Directions for the diagnosis, clinical staging, treatment and prevention of canine leishmaniosis. Vet Parasitol 165:1-18.
4. Parasit Vectors 4:86.
5. World Health Organization. Control of the Leishmaniases, Report of a WHO expert committee. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser. 2010; 949: 1–186.
6. Yasur-Landau D, Jaffe CL, David L, Baneth G. 2016. Allopurinol Resistance in Leishmania infantum from Dogs with Disease Relapse. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 10:e0004341.
An Urban Experience

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