Page 542 - ONLINE PROCEEDING BOOK WSAVA 2017
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542
An Urban Experience
stuporous (the animal is only responding if provoked by vigorous or unpleasant stimulation) and comatose (deep and prolonged state of unconsciousness where the patient is unable to respond to external stimuli).
Animals with lesions affecting the frontal cerebrum (e.g.
space occupying lesions such as tumors or hemorrhage) or focal ischemia caused by embolic stroke will often also display and altered behavior which is dominated by signs such as dif culties to interpret the environment. Head pressing and circling in large circles toward the lesion are also common in such patients.
Neurological examination
Neurological examination elements
Neuro-anatomical structures involved
History
Animal ID
Name, breed, age, sex, neutered
Interview the owner
Why is the owner seeking veterinary assistance
When did this problem start What are the clinical signs
Is the problem stationary/progressive/ regressive
Mental status
Evaluate
Awareness
State of consciousness
Emotional and behavioral patterns
Brainstem (ARAS)
The limbic system Cerebrum frontal lobes
Cranial nerves
Twelve pairs of cranial nerves (CN) positioned symmetrically right and left emerge from various parts of the the brain and brainstem. They are identi ed
by numbers I-XII and by names which are inspired
from Latin and Greek and give a hint to the function
of the nerve. CN I is positioned most rostral and CN
XII is positioned most caudal. CN I-XII are named as follows: CN I: N Olfactorius, CN II: N Opticus, CN
III: N Oculomotorius, CN IV: N Trochlearis, CN V: N Trigeminus, CN VI: N Abducens, CN VII: N Facialis, CN VIII: N Vestibulocochlearis, CN IX: N Glossopharyngeus, CN X: N Vagus, CN XI: N Acessorius and CN XII: N Hypoglossus.
Each pair of CN is evaluated separately and by speci c tests in order to determine if the right and the left CN
is responding suf ciently and equally. A short review of the cranial nerves and the tests which can be used to evaluate CN structures and their function can be found in table 1 below.
42ND WORLD SMALL ANIMAL VETERINARY ASSOCIATION CONGRESS AND FECAVA 23RD EUROCONGRESS


































































































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