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Signs of peripheral nerve dysfunction
Lesions of the peripheral nerves are closely related to the structures innervated by the speci c nerve (localised muscular dysfunction and muscle atrophy.
Signs of peripheral nerve or neuromuscular dysfunction
An Urban Experience
Generalised neuromuscular disease may be episodic or stationary. If the animal can support its own weight, it may express a typical posture with a lowered head and walk with a short stride. The animal appears weak and will preferable sit or lie down. Vocalisation may be weak. Pain sensation is normal. The animal must be supported in order to conduct a proper examination of propriocep- tion and postural reactions.
Test
CNS/PNS structures involved
Spinal re exes
Front limbs Withdrawal re ex*
Extensor carpi radialis re ex
Biceps brachii re ex/ Triceps re ex
Hind limbs
Patella re ex (L4-L6)
Withdrawal re ex (L4-S2)
Cranial tibial and gastrocnemius re exes
Other Cutaneus trunci
Perineal re ex
C6-T2 + associated nerve roots, brachial plexus & axillary, musculocutaneous, median and ulnar nerves
C7-T2 & Radial nerve
C6-C8 + associated roots & N Musculocutaneus nerve
C7-T1 + associated nerve roots and Radial nerve
L4-L6 + associated nerve roots & femoral nerve
L4-S2 + associated nerve roots, femoral & sciatic nerves
L6-S1/L7-S1
C8-T1 + cutaneous trunci nerve S1-S3
Pain evaluation
Conscious perception of pain
Sensory component of spinal nerve & associated spinal cord segments – spinal cord, brainstem & thalamus – thalamocortical structures
*Note that the withdrawal re ex is the only consistently reliable re ex in the front limb in normal animals
References
De Lahunta A, Glass EN, Kent M. Veterinary Neuroanatomy and Clinical Neurology. Third edition. Saunders, Elsevier 2009; p. 134-167, p. 192-284 & p. 487-524.
Garosi L, Lowrie M. The Neurological Examination. In BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Neurology. Eds. Platt SR & Olby NJ. BSAVA British Small Animal Veterinary Association. Fourth Edition, BSAVA 2013; 1-24.
Garosi L. lesion localization and differential diagnosis. In BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Neurology. Eds. Platt SR & Olby NJ. BSAVA British Small Animal Veterinary Association. Fourth Edition, BSAVA 2013; 25-35.
The Free Dictionary/Medical Dictionary: www.dictionary.thefreedictionary.com
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