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non-products of the breeding scheme (de ned as dogs with at least 1 parent with unknown cardiac status before breeding). In 2010–2011, the odds of having mitral regurgitation murmur were 0.27 if dogs were a product of the breeding scheme, re ecting a 73% decreased
risk over an 8- to 10-year time period. No signi cant risk reduction was found for the dogs that were non-products of the breeding scheme. These  ndings indicate that it
is possible to reduce the risk of having a heart murmur due to MMVD in CKCS over an 8- to 10-year period by a mandatory breeding scheme based on auscultation and echocardiography.
CONCLUSIONS AND PERSPECTIVES
New knowledge regarding the genetic background and MMVD in dogs has been published. Breeding schemes can reduce the risk of having heart murmurs due to MMVD in CKCS. Further studies are needed to identify factors with the most signi cant in uence on the ef cacy of breeding schemes aimed at reducing the prevalence of MMVD.
REFERENCES
1Borgarelli M, et al. J Vet Intern Med 2012;26(1):69. 2Swenson L, et al. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208(12):2009. 3Olsen LH, et al. J Vet Intern Med 1999;13(5):448. 4Lewis T, et al. Vet J 2011;188(1):73. 5Madsen MB, et al. J Hered 2011;102(suppl 1):S62. 6French et al. Vet J 2012;193(1):283. 7Stern et al. PLoS One 2015;10(10):e0141234.8Swift S, et al. J
Vet Intern Med 2017;31(1):9.9Lundin et al. Acta Vet Scand 2010;52:54. 10Birkegård et al. J Vet Intern Med 2016;30(1):63.
An Urban Experience
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