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and suture techniques have to be used for any type of surgery, but for reconstructive surgery in particular.
Complications in performing plastic and reconstructive surgery
Complications of wound closure in plastic and reconstructive surgery are similar to those in general
soft tissue surgeries and include wound dehiscence, infection, hematoma or seroma formation, and excessive scar formation. Most complications can be avoided
by a proper pre-operative planning and skin mobility assessment, by using a meticulous surgical technique and achieving haemostasis. Chances of  ap survival
will increase if the size and localisation of the wound
is suitable for receiving the  ap, if the wound is neither contaminated nor infected and if the wound is not older than 4-6 hours. It is also important that the recipient bed for the  ap is fully prepared. Another complication that should be avoided is the development of dead space, which can lead to the formation of abscesses, seromas or hematomas. Formation of dead space can be overcome by placing drains, subcutaneous and walking sutures and bandages. The authors recommend the use of either passive or active drains whenever possible while taking care not to damage the blood supply at the base of the  ap by making exit ports.
1. Swaim SF, Henderson RA. Small animal wound management, 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Williams & Wilkins; 1997:143-275.
2. Pavletic MM. The integument. In: Slatter D, ed. Textbook of small animal surgery. 3rd ed. Saunders; 2007.
3. Kirpensteijn J, ter Haar G. Reconstructive surgery and wound management in the dog and cat. Manson Publishing/ The Veterinary Press 2013 (ISBN: 978-1- 84076-163-4).
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