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An Urban Experience
dogs regardless of antigen status should be started on macrocyclic lactone therapy prior to transport
Endoparasiticide – A broad spectrum deworming productive effective against hookworms and roundworms should be administered. Certain countries also require tapeworm treatment days before transport.
Rabies and DHPP/FVRCP vaccination – A rabies vaccination is legally required for all dogs and cats,
with minor exceptions which vary per country. All dogs should be appropriately vaccinated for canine distemper and canine parvovirus and cats for panleukopenia.
CBC/Chemistry – Bloodwork can be used to rule out underlying disease that may not be evident on physical examination, including thrombocytopenia for tick-borne disease which is prevalent in free-roaming dogs.
IDEXX 4DX SNAP test – Screens for exposure to tick-borne disease and heartworm infection. Some organizations may elect to administer a 21-28 day course of doxycycline to dogs who test positive for E. canis and Anaplasma spp. antibodies.
Ectoparasiticide – Animal should be free of ectoparasites during their time spent in the organization’s care.
Advanced diagnostics – Further diagnostics may be warranted depending on clinical signs. Certain infectious disease including dermatophytosis, parvovirus, and distemper must be ruled out through diagnostics (DTM culture, SNAP test, blood smears), clinical signs, and keeping animals separated from those that might
be carrying infectious disease. Radiographs may be warranted depending on physical examination  ndings. FeLV/FIV tests should be performed to ascertain the retroviral status of cats going into adoption programs.
Rabies titer test (Fluorescent Antibody Virus Neutralization (FAVN)) – FAVN testing is often required by many rabies-free countries and some rabies- controlled countries for dogs and cats to qualify for a reduced quarantine period or no quarantine at all when they are traveling from particular countries. The test consists of a three-fold serum dilution series and is used to detect rabies virus neutralizing antibody after vaccination.
Special disease considerations
Rabies – Organizations must know whether or not their country is considered a rabies-endemic country as speci ed by the country of import. As a general rule, at a minimum all cats and dogs must be vaccinated against rabies prior to arrival into the import country at least 30 days prior to arrival.
Canine in uenza – Until March 2015, the canine in uenza (CIV) strain H3N2 appeared to be limited to Asia, speci cally Korea, China, and Thailand. However, an outbreak originating in Chicago was believed to
have been due to a H3N2 strain (2). While it was speculated that the virus was introduced to the U.S.
via dogs rescued and imported from Asia, there was
no evidence to substantiate this claim. Dogs must be screened for any signs of respiratory disease prior to transport. Researchers at the University of Wisconsin found that CIV H3N2 can shed for more than 20 days (3).
While focus is typically on rabies transmission,
the transmission of other zoonotic diseases (e.g., brucellosis, leishmaniasis, campylobacteriosis, leptospirosis, giardiasis, and cutaneous or visceral larva migrans) is also a real threat.
Shipping logistics
To facilitate shipping, organizations may consider hiring a relocation expert to facilitate transit permits, logistics, etc. Depending on the country, an export permit may need to be obtained  rst. Depending on where the dog or cat is going, a pre- lled EU FORM 998/2003 (for EU) or USDA health certi cate (for US) is also required.
Transportation crates must comply with International Air Transport Association (IATA) requirements. As a general rule, animals should not be sedated during transport as it is impossible to monitor for potential side effects while the animal is in  ight.
Special import considerations
United States
For export to the US, regulations are fairly straightforward. Microchipping and rabies vaccination are the most important procedures. The youngest that a puppy can be imported into the United States is 4 months of age.
European Union
If an animal is being imported from a non-EU country,
it must be microchipped, then vaccinated for rabies. After waiting 30 days following vaccination, a rabies
titer test (FAVN) must be administered. Samples must
be processed at approved laboratories. Assuming test results indicate neutralizing antibody in serum equal to or greater than 0.5 IU/ml, the animal can enter no sooner than 3 calendar months after the date the blood was drawn and avoid quarantine.
Prior to entering Finland, Ireland, Malta, the United Kingdom, or Norway, dogs must be treated against the parasite Echinococcus multilocularis. The treatment must be administered by a veterinarian within a period of not more than 120 hours and not less than 24 hours before the time of scheduled entry (3).

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