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An Urban Experience
conformation to avoid superimposition. Additional special views for evaluation of the pelvis may include oblique views and distraction views to evaluate for coxofemoral joint laxity.
• Stifle: Routine radiographs of the stifle joint include mediolateral and craniocaudal or caudocranial views. In case of joint instability, stress views may also prove useful. A special craniodistal-cranioproximal (“skyline”) view occasionally used to evaluate the depth of the femoral trochlea involves positioning the patient in dorsal recumbency under stifle joint flexion, aligning the x-ray tube in parallel orientation with the floor and directing the x-ray beam over the highest point of the flexed leg.
• Tarsus and pes: The radiographic principles for evaluation of the tarsus and pes are the same as described for the carpus and manus above. An additional albeit rarely used view is a dorsoplantar view under tarsal flexion. This provides improved visualization of the trochlear ridges of the talus (“skyline view”) which is important e.g. in the diagnosis of OC/OCD lesions or tarsal trauma.
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3. Thrall DE, Robertson ID. Normal Radiographic Anatomy &Anatomic Variants in the Dog and Cat. St. Louis: Elsevier Saunders; 2011.
4. Barr FJ, Kirberger RM. BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Musculoskeletal Imaging. Gloucester: BSAVA; 2006.
5. Thrall DE et al. Section III: The Appendicular Skeleton: Canine, Feline, and Equine. In: Textbook of Veterinary Diagnostic Radiology. 6th. Ed. Thrall DE, editor. St. Louis: Elsevier Saunders; 2013.
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8. Flückiger MA, Friedrich GA, Binder H. A radiographic stress technique for evaluation of coxofemoral joint laxity in dogs. Vet Surg 1999; 28: 1-9.

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