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An Urban Experience
too far-reaching or not generalizable to other breeds or populations, necessitating revision of existing views.
In conclusion, big data and statistics on inherited disorders in the companion animal population are now available, and have the potential to guide DNA testing priorities, breed health research, and breeding selections, while having implications for veterinary education and pet care. The fact that around 2 in 5 dogs carry a genetic variant reported in the literature as associated with a Mendelian disorder emphasizes the need for appropriate genetic counseling in combination with destigmatization of carrier dogs. Sustainable breeding will ultimately
need to encompass consideration of both the overall genetic diversity of the breed, and relevant inherited disorders. Up to date knowledge on inherited disorders, their relative prevalence and manifestation in the general dog population, is called for within veterinary education and medicine. Understanding of what information a genetic test result provides, and what information it
does not provide, is crucial to ensuring that a result is interpreted and applied correctly in breeding programs and veterinary practice. Even the most comprehensive genetic test is only one subpart of an overall breeding strategy and an animal’s health records. Successful genetic counseling for individuals and populations is ultimately likely to be a cooperative effort involving stakeholders at various levels, such as veterinarians, breed health committees, and national kennel/cat organizations.
[1] Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals, OMIA. (
[2] Donner J, Kaukonen M, Anderson H, Möller F, Kyöstilä K, Sankari S, Hytönen M, Giger U, Lohi H. Genetic panel screening of nearly 100 mutations reveals new insights into the breed distribution of risk variants for canine hereditary disorders. PLoS ONE 11(8): e0161005. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0161005
[3] Donner J, Anderson H, Davison S, Hughes A, Bouirmane J, Lindqvist J, Ganesan B, Lytle K, Forman O, Fretwell N, Cole C, Lohi H. Frequency and distribution of 152 genetic disease variants in over 100,000 mixed breed and purebred dogs. Manuscript submitted.
[4] MyBreedData Canine Inherited Disorder Prevalence Database (http://www.

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