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external sources of heat should be modi ed to meet their environmental needs. Additionally, amphibians require provision of moisture to their skin for cutaneous forms of respiration to occur.
Anesthetic Depth and Analgesia: Often overlooked as topics during monitoring, these can be quite challenging in exotics. Across species, the importance of a multi- modal approach has gained both traction and evidence based research. In general, despite the dif culty in
pain assessment (to be addressed in later lectures),
the physiologic underpinnings are present for reptiles, birds and small mammals to all feel pain. Not only is
it therefore ethical to address pain, when it would be rational in better understood species, but these drugs often augment other anesthetics in a positive way.
1. Properties of the inhalant anesthetics:
a. MAC- de nition based upon movement
b. Autonomic Re exes- often utilized as a proxy for movement (2x MAC)
c. Toxicity varies by species and study, but tends to fall at 4x MAC
(low therapeutic ratio compared to other drugs)
d. Unconsciousness (?)
e. Analgesia
2. Properties of other drugs used in the peri-anesthetic period:
a. Benzodiazepines b. Opioids
c. Ketamine
d. Alfaxalone
e. Alpha-two antagonists f. Local anesthetics
g. NSAIDs
An Urban Experience
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