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WSVA7-0559
ANESTHESIOLOGY OF SMALL MAMMALS, BIRDS AND REPTILES
ANESTHESIA/ANALGESIA SPECIAL FOCUS: BIRDS
B.D. Wright1
1Veterinary Anesthesiologist — Integrative Pain Management Specialist, Mistralvet.com
Cliff notes of considerations for birds: Physiology:
1. Airway and lungs:
a. Complete tracheal rings (most)
b. Thick secretions (clogged ETT)
c. Proximal tracheal bifurcations (penguins) d. Efficiency of gas exchange
e. Air sac cannulation as an option
2. Cardiovascular:
a. Leg veins are an option in larger birds (parrots, owls, raptors)
b. ECG- large negative QRS
c. Tachyarrhythmias common- combined handling stress and sensitization of myocardium by inhalants
3. Pain physiology:
a. Presence of pain-sensing physiology is maintained
b. Assessment: Different species show variable signs- studies in raptors vs. chickens vs. parrots
4. Pharmacology:
a. Local anesthetics- variable efficacy in studies- CALCULATE maximum dose!!
b. Don’t forget intra-nasal routes, especially in large Macaws and parrots
I. Midazolam/butorphanol
c. Various studies on opioid choices – extremely vari- able!
d. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatories
e. Tramadol
f. Alfaxalone
5. Acupuncture in birds:
a. Sedation is apparent and reproducible b. Sacral points
c. Modifier of chronic pain
42ND WORLD SMALL ANIMAL VETERINARY ASSOCIATION CONGRESS AND FECAVA 23RD EUROCONGRESS
An Urban Experience
   


































































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