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III. These drugs are most commonly use as adjucts to other drugs, either for premedication of ill patients, or to augment induction with most other drugs.
a. Highly protein bound, hepatic metabolism, renal elimination.
b. Diazepam is non-soluble and comes formulated in propylene glycol- a vascular irritant. IM absorption is slow and unpredictable. Long term IV administration may result in thrombophlebitis and scarring. Occasional reactions to propylene glycol are reported (hypotension, shock).
c. Midazolam is more potent than diazepam, is water soluble, and may be given by any route.
d. Telazol is formulated with Tiletamine (a dissociative drug) and Zolazepam. Zolazepam is not available as an isolated drug.
Butyrophenones: formulations compounded and provided by zoopharm
Droperidol, Azaperone, Haloperidol: Potent dopamine receptor antagonists with mild anti-histamine and serotonin antagonism. Anti-psychotic properties possible.
Analgesic considerations in zoo animals: Approachability
Drugs
Improving data in many zoo species administration challenges, solutions
Non-drug options- acupuncture, motion
An Urban Experience
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