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Level of Pain: Pain elicits the same responses
as circulatory shock. Treatment using intravenous agonist opioids can provide immediate relief. Adding benzodiazepines can reduce the overall need for opioids. Both are titratable and reversible (naloxone for opioids and  umazenil for benzodiazepines).
Following the triage and resuscitation process, more information is obtained from the owner. A thorough physical exam involving the entire dog, including rectal and genital exam, and vital signs is required. An initial database consisting of packed cell volume (PCV), total solids (TS), dextrostick, lactate, electrolytes and venous blood gas panel are performed. Blood samples are collected for pretreatment complete blood count and serum biochemical analysis when time permits.
Suggested Reading
1. Mathews KA. Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Manual. Ontario: Lifelearn; 2006.
2. Crowe DT. A general approach to emergency patients. Veterinary Medicine 2003;98:777-786.
3. Emergency Medicine. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2005.
4. RECOVER Campaign issue-s1/issuetoc
An Urban Experience

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